Source and/or location: UMN = University of Minnesota Libraries, HCL= Hennepin County Library, GBks = Google Books, PDF = downloaded (JS has copy), DBx = uploaded to Dropbox

Unpublished primary sources

Anoka County Plat Map, Abstract and Index - 1888. Anoka: Anoka County Genealogical Society, 2000.

Census 1849, 1850, 1865, 1875. MNHS People Finder,, Park Genealogical Books, USGenWeb Free Census Project, and Family Search,

City Directories for St. Anthony and Minneapolis, 1859-60, 1874, 1876, 1877-8. Minneapolis City Directory Collection 1859-1922, Hennepin County Library,

Our Lady of Lourdes Church Records, Parish Census 1907 (microfilm). Minnesota Genealogical Society, South St. Paul.

St. Anthony of Padua Church Records, Marriages and Baptisms 1851-1858, Baptisms 1851-1935, Marriages 1851-1935 (all microfilm). Minnesota Genealogical Society, South St. Paul.


Belde, Walter W. 1938. “Red River Trails A, B, C and BC” 148 C 12 5). Minnesota Historical Society, St Paul. Notes: WPA-funded compilation of US land surveyor’s original plats and field notes [1847]. Original at Minnesota Secretary of State’s Office. Appears as “1847 Oxcart Map” in outline.

Cook, R and Franklin Cook. 1861. “Map of St. Anthony and Minneapolis.” John R. Borchert Map Library, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.

“Map of Anoka County, Minn.” Andres Atlas, 1874. Anoka County Historical Society.

“Map of Road from Point Douglas to Fort Ripley,” (Roads 99) NARG 77, Washington County Commissioners, Record Book B, Proceedings, June 21, September 3, 1873. County Auditor’s Office, Stillwater.

“Map of the U.S. Government Road from Point Douglas to Fort Ripley, from the Survey made in 1857.” County Auditor’s Office, Sherburne County Courthouse, Elk River.

Township Maps from the Surveyor General’s Office, Dubuque (USGS The National Map website,
Township No. 30. N.Range No. 24 West 4th Mer: 1848. (now Fridley)
Township No. 30. N.Range No. 24 West 4th Mer: 1872. (now Fridley)
Township No. 31. N.Range No. 24 West 4th Mer: 1848. (now Coon Rapids)
Township No. 31. N.Range No. 25 West 4th Mer: 1848. (now Anoka west of Rum R.)
Township No. 32. N.Range No. 25 West 4th Mer: 1851. (now Anoka west of Rum R.)
Township No. 29. N.Range No. 24 West 4th Mer: 1856. (now St. Anthony Main)
Township No. 29. N.Range No. 24 West 4th Mer: 1876. (now St. Anthony Main)
Notes: The only road on most of these maps is the Red River Road, which kept that name after the route became the military road.

Personal accounts

Casswell, Mary Woodbury. “Reminiscences,” Historic Sites, Woodbury House File 4. Anoka County Historical Society, Anoka.

Davis, Michael, William Davis, and Mrs. William Davis [Sarah Norton?]. “Pioneer Questionnaires and Oral History.” Historical Data Project (Rolette County), North Dakota Historical Society, Belcourt. Microfilm at Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul.
Notes: WPA-funded oral history project includes accounts about Red River life, buffalo hunt, and pemmican-making.

Goiffon, Joseph. “Journal.” Anoka County Historical Society, Anoka.

Secondary and published primary sources

Abbott, John S. C. 1859. “The People of the Red River.” Harper’s Magazine 18: 169-176. [PDF]
Notes: See description of St. Paul when the “Pembinese” come to town (p. 169). Good etchings.

Adams, Christopher, Gregg Dahl, and Ian Peach, eds. 2013. "Métis in Canada: History, Identity, Law and Politics. Edmonton: University of Alberta Press." [UMN]

Andersen, Chris. 2014. “ 'Métis': Race, Recognition, and the Struggle for Indigenous Peoplehood." Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. [UMN]

Atwater, Issac. 1893. "History of the City of Minneapolis, Minnesota. Vol. 1." New York: Munsell and Co. [GBks, PDF]

Babcock, Willoughby M., ed. 1927. “Minnesota as Seen by Travelers: A Dragoon on the March to Pembina in 1849.” Minnesota History 8:61-74. [PDF]

Bishop, Harriet E. 1857. "Floral Home, Or, First Years of Minnesota." New York: Sheldon, Blakeman and Co. [GBks, PDF]
Notes: Traders, explorers, pioneers. See Ch. 46 (People of Pembina) and 48 (on capote).

Bond, J. W. 1853. "Minnesota and its Resources." New York: Redfield. [GBks, PDF]
Notes: Travel to Pembina with Ramsey in 1951, with Pierre Bottineau as guide. Use.

Brown, Chester. 2013. "Louis Riel: A Comic-Strip Biography" (10th ann. ed.). Montreal: Drawn and Quarterly. [HCL]
Notes: Award-winning graphic novel, originally issued in serial format 1999-2003. Riel portraits (p. 36, 56) and good maps. Good for “if you want to learn more.”

Chesebro, James W. 1989. "A Genealogy of the Ancestors and Descendants of Pierre Bottineau with Partial Genealogies of the Montreuille, Grant, Raiche, Falcon, McGillis, McCann, LaPointe, and Desautels Families." Annandale, VA: James W. Chesebro. [HCL]

___. 1990. "Charles Joseph Bottineau (Sr.), Techomehgood, and Their Descendants with Partial Genealogies of the Boutin, Campbell, Desjarlais, La Pointe, Martell, McCann, McGillis, Nelson, Popple, and Raiche Families." Annandale, VA: James W. Chesebro. [HCL]

Child, Brenda J. 2012. "Holding Our World Together: Ojibwe Women and the Survival of Community." New York: Viking. [HCL]
Notes: Emphasis on women’s work and agency in sustaining Ojibwe communities, economies and kin networks. Ch. 2, Ojibwe Women in Fur Trade Society, gives useful general perspective. [PDF]

Coues, Elliott, ed. 1897. "New Light on the Early History of the Greater Northwest: The Manuscript Journals of Alexander Henry, Fur Trader of the Northwest Company, and of David Thompson, Official Geographer of the Same Company 1799-1814." Vol. 1 and 2. New York: Francis P. Harper. [GBks, PDF]
Notes: Henry established a new NWCo fort at Pembina in 1801, soon joined by HBCo and XYCo forts. Journal describes earliest carts. A source for Mattson and for Gilman, et al. Use.

Devine, Heather. 2004. "The People Who Own Themselves: Aboriginal Ethnogenesis in a Canadian Family, 1660-1900." Calgary: University of Calgary Press.
Notes: On Desjarlais family, intermarried with Bottineau. Analysis of genealogical method.

Dumont Institute. "Virtual Museum of Métis History and Culture - Michif Tools."
Notes: Good audio resource: Michif language tools from Saskachwan- based Métis Culture and History organization, including dictionary, lessons, and Android app.

Ens, Gerhard John. 1996. "Homeland to Hinterland: The Changing Worlds of the Red River Métis in the Nineteenth Century." Toronto: University of Toronto Press. [UMN]

Foster, Martha Harroun. 2006. "We Know Who We Are: Métis Identity in a Montana Community." Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. [UMN]

Gates, Charles M., ed. 1965. "Five Fur Traders of the Northwest." St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press. [UMN]
Notes: Before our time period, but Pond (language) or McLeod (Red River) are early context.

Gilman, Carolyn. 1998-99. “A Day in the Life of the Gens Libres.” Minnesota History 56(4): 175-177. [PDF]
Notes: Describes camp and hunt, based on accounts of the day. Use.
___. 1978. “Perceptions of the Prairie: Cultural Contrasts on the Red River Trails.” Minnesota History 46(3):112-122. [PDF]
___. 1982. "Where Two Worlds Meet: The Great Lakes Fur Trade." St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press. [UMN]
Notes: Exhibition catalogue, great resources. Use Métis sash at MNHS, p. 69?

Gilman, Rhoda. 1970. “Last Days of the Upper Mississippi Fur Trade.” Minnesota History 42(4):122-140. [PDF]

Gilman, Rhoda R., Carolyn Gilman, and Deborah M. Stultz. 1979. "The Red River Trails: Oxcart Routes between St. Paul and the Selkirk Settlement 1820-1870. St. Paul": Minnesota Historical Society Press. [UMN]
Notes: Our central source, but light on detail for Upper Mississippi Riverfront. Expand.

[Gorneau] Charlie White Weasel. [1994?] "Pembina and Turtle Mountain Ojibway (Chippewa) History from the Personal Collections and Writings of Charlie White Weasel." Belcourt, ND: Charlie White Weasel.

Gunn, George H. 1939. “Peter Garrioch at St. Peter’s, 1837.” Minnesota History 20(2):119-128. [PDF]
Notes: Overview of Garrioch’s journal, on settlements at mouth of Minnesota River and 1837 Treaty negotiations with Ojibwe at Ft. Snelling. Have excerpts from MNHS, not useful.

Halberg, Jane. 2013. "Pierre Bottineau: A Founder of Osseo, Minnesota; The Kit Carson of Minnesota; The Walking Peace Pipe." Brooklyn, MN: Brooklyn Historical Society. [HCL, PDF]

Henry, Alexander. See Coues, above.

Hogue, Michel. 2015. "Metis and the Medicine Line: Creating a Border and Dividing a People." Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. [UMN]
Notes: Useful on what comes after Red River trade, as US-Canadian border is surveyed in early 1870s and fur trade moves further northwest.

Howard, Joseph Kinsey. 1994[1952]. "Strange Empire: A Narrative of the Northwest." St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press. [HCL]
Notes: Classic story of the Red River Settlement and Riel resistance.

Jensen, Toni. 2010. "From the Hilltop." Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. [HCL]
Notes: Contemporary short stories by a writer who is Métis, grew up in Iowa, and teaches at the University of Arkansas. Themes include travel and dispossession, race, belonging.

Kane, Paul. 1859. "Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America." London: Longman, Brown, Green, Longmans, and Roberts. [PDF]
Notes: Irish-Canadian portraitist inspired by Catlin and supported by HBCo. Travelled the Northwest 1845-8. Visit to Red River begins Ch. 4 with account of carts (p. 76) and hunt (77ff). Images include View (74) and Buffalo (143). See also paintings at National Gallery of Canada and Royal Ontario Museum.

Kelland, Lara. 2000. "Bibliography of Historical Resources for Northeast Minneapolis." Prepared for the Mississippi Corridor Neighborhood Coalition. Minneapolis: Neighborhood Planning for Community Revitalization/CURA. [PDF, in DBx]
Notes: List of historic properties above the falls. Develop for our purposes.

Kohn, Bruce A. 2012. "Dakota Child, Governor’s Daughter." Mendota, MN: Friends of the Sibley Historic Site. [HCL-ILL]
Notes: Helen Sibley was the daughter of Henry Hastings Sibley and a Dakota woman known as Red Blanket Woman (Tahshinahohindoway). The book explores her marginal position as a way of understanding Minnesota at statehood.

Krech, Shepard, III. 1999. "The Ecological Indian: Myth and History." New York: Norton. [UMN, GBks]
Notes: See Ch. 5 “Buffalo.”

Marble, Manton. 1860-61. "To Red River and Beyond." New York: Harper and Brothers. [PDF]

Mattson, E. Neil. 1958. "Red River Oxcarts Trek Historic Pembina Trail." Warren, MN: Marshall County Statehood Centennial Committee. [HCL, PDF, DBx]
Notes: Pamphlet for Minnesota Centennial celebrations, a companion to Hagen’s trek.

McCann, Loretta, and Lorraine Hilger. about 1986. "Dan McCann and Margaret McCann and their descendants," family genealogy (from John Aaron Theis, descendent of Charles Joseph Bottineau (Sr.), Techomehgood).

Morin, Gail. 1996. "Metis Families: A Genealogical Compendium." Pawtucket, RI: Quintin Publications.

Morris, Lucy Leavenworth. 1914. "Old Rail Fence Corners." Austin, MN: The F.H. McCulloch Printing Co. [GBks, PDF]
Notes: Pioneer memories, esp. of St. Anthony area. Ch. 1 is on old trails. Use (see JS notes).

Neill, Edward D., and J. Fletcher Williams. 1881. "History of Hennepin County and the City of Minneapolis: Including the Explorers and Pioneers of Minnesota, and Outlines of the History of Minnesota. Minneapolis": North Star Publishing Company. [HCL, PDF]
Notes: Use for settlement of Upper St. Anthony and Marshall Terrace at end of our period.

Nute, Grace Lee. 1925. “The Red River Trails.” Minnesota History 6(3):279-282. [PDF]
Notes: Good map of trails – not too detailed, could reproduce well to show network of routes.

Ostby, Orlin. 2008. "Pum & The Pembina Trail - Part of the Minnesota Sesquicentennial Celebration."

Payment, Diane Paulette. 2001. “Plains Métis.” In "Handbook of North American Indians," Vol. 13, Pt. 1, edited by Raymond J. DeMaille, 661-674. [PDF, DBx]
Notes: See also entries in other volumes for Canada, contemporary issues, etc. [PDF]

Peterson, Jacqueline, and Jennifer S. H. Brown, eds. 1985. "The New Peoples: Being and Becoming Métis in North America." Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. [UMN]

Pritchett, John Perry. 1942. "The Red River Valley, 1811–1849: A Regional Study." New Haven: Yale University Press. [UMN]
___. 1924. “Some Red River Fur-Trade Activities.” Minnesota History 5(6):401-423. [PDF]

Rogers, Virginia. 1979. “The Indians and the Métis: Genealogical Sources on Minnesota’s Earliest Settlers.” "Minnesota History" 46:286-296. [PDF]

Ross, Alexander. 1957[1856]. "The Red River Settlement: Its Rise, Progress and Present State." Minneapolis: Ross and Haines. [GBks, PDF]
Notes: Métis settlement (p. 234ff); 1840 buffalo hunt (245-264); both buffalo and Indians as “vanishing” (267).

St. Onge, Nicole, Carolyn Podruchny, and Brenda Macdougall, eds. 2013. "Contours of a People: Métis Family, Mobility, and History." Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. [UMN]

Scofield, Gregory A. 2005. "Singing Home the Bones." Berkeley, CA: Publishers Group West. [UMN]
Notes: Striking poems, many focusing on connection to ancestors, land. Scofield is Métis; he teaches at Alberta College of Art and Design.

Singley, Grover. 1974. "Tracing Minnesota's Old Government Roads." St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press.
Notes: See Ch. 4 on Pt. Douglas – Ft. Ripley Road. [PDF, D­­Bx]

Seymour, E. S. 1850. "Sketches of Minnesota, The New England of the West." New York: Harper & Brothers. [PDF, GBks]

Smithsonian/Folkways Recordings. 1992. "Plains Chippewa/Métis Music from Turtle Mountain." [audio recording] [HCL]
Notes: Includes Pembina Chippewa Drum Songs and “Red River Jig.”

Van Kirk, Sylvia. 1999. "Many Tender Ties: Women in Fur Trade Society in Western Canada," 1670-1870. Winnipeg: Watson and Dwyer. [UMN]

White, Bruce M. 1977. "The Fur Trade in Minnesota: An Introductory Guide to Manuscript Sources." St Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press. [UMN]
Notes: See roster of fur traders in Upper Mississippi 1795-1822. Use for families.

___. 1998-99. “The Power of Whiteness, or, The Life and Times of Joseph Rolette, Jr.” Minnesota History 56(4): 178-97. [PDF]

White, Richard. 1991. "The Middle Ground: Indians, Empires, and Republics in the Great Lakes Region, 1650-1815." New York: Cambridge University Press. [UMN]
Notes: Useful general perspective. Influential analysis of early contact world as a joint, syncretic, mutually-negotiated creation of European and indigenous peoples, until Americans were able to dominate and demand Native acculturation.

Williams, J. Fletcher. 1983[1876]. "A History of the City of Saint Paul to 1875." St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press. [HCL, GBks, PDF]
Notes: Biographies of trader-statesmen (throughout), Red River carts (p. 304-308).

Witgen, Michael J. 2012. "An Infinity of Nations: How the Native New World Shaped Early North America." Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. [UMN]
Notes: Useful general perspective. Develops R. White’s approach (above): foregrounds Indian agency in creating New World and extends periodization. See also epilogue on Riel.